4. Dez. Aug. SCHWEINFURT. Die Faszination der Fratze. Vom Krieg gezeichnet: Professor Alexander Kübler (links) und Professor Rainer. 1. März das Bild der Welt als hybride Fratze gezeichnet, ein Bild, das den einschlägigen spätmittelalterlichen Vignetten und auch dem Titelemblem des. Okt. eckelhafte Fratze gezeichnet und gesagt habe: „seht da, so waren wir! und man hatte Recht, uns die Ruthe zu geben.“ Er gibt mir jedoch das. Das Apokalyptische lag ihm weit näher. Hier sind ein paar der klassischen Monster-Teile kombiniert: For me this unusual way even opend up a rainbow six videospiele perspective on how I usually draw. Spaziergänger entdeckt Schwertfisch am Elbstrand. Marie ist einen Tick schwieriger, aber auch für jedermann gut machbar. Kategorien online casino spiele kostenlos online casino job online casino zahlung per sms besten online casino spiele kosten olympische spiele 2019 spiele hersteller online casino
Monday, September 17, barefoot. My gratitude goes to the KON-BigBand which played live later on the same day and provided the right background music for the video clip.
Monday, September 3, drunken pen. Yesterday I spontaneously sketched my good friend Grig on an I-pad while we were drinking self-made cherry, strawberry and banana wine Monday, August 13, left with right.
It took a bit longer than it normally would, but I managed to do these drawings. For me this unusual way even opend up a new perspective on how I usually draw.
Maybe I should switch more often. Heinrich Wohlgemuth,jetzt Jacob Goertz jun. M ,hat anno die Witwe des Menn.
Martin Boltz M ,ist schon zu polnischer Zeit im Besitz gewesen. Michael Schmidt, vorhin Peter Fick L. Isaac Adrian M ,erkauft von dem Menn.
Peter Dirks M ,in eingeheiratet. Stephan Baltzer M ,ist schon zu polnischeer Zeit im Besitz gewesen. Johann Rahn L Abraham Goertz M ,in von Isaac Adrian erkauft.
Peter Franz M ,besitzt diesen Hof aus polnischer Zeit her. Heinrich Goertz erkauft Johann Wigang L Groenke C , aus dem Hofe Nr. David Roeder L ,desgl.
Christian Behrend L ,ad Hof Nr. David Loefke L , ad Nr. Michael Dorau L , ad Nr. Johann Preuss Witwe L , ad Nr. Johann Kuhn L , ad Nr. Peter Hiske L , ad Nr.
Peter Franz gekauft und ist immer im Besitz der Mennoniten gewesen. Christian Behrend der sub Nr. Cammer Consens vom 5 Febr.
The court language in olden as well as in modern times is not always intelligble. The handwriting is not always easily readable and is a challenge and good study material for history seminars.
Here are some expressions and abbreviations which I found in the documents: Akt Sadu Obwodowego w Nowem Seite: Lubin, 2 Copia A: Nachlass der verstorbenen Maria Goertz geb.
Lubin, 13 Copia C: Erbteilung des Peter Goertz, Gr. Nachlass der vertorbenen Anna Boltz geb. Balzer, Copia F.: Nachlass der verstorbenen Maria Schroeder geb.
Siebrandt 35 Table of Contents: Akt Sadu Obwodowego w Nowem Page: Estate of deceased Maria Goertz geb. Estate partition of Peter Goertz, Gr.
Lubin, Birth days of Peter Goertz children, Gr. Estate of deceased Anna Boltz geb. Balzer, Copia F: Estate of deceased Maria Schroeder geb.
Actum Gross Lubin den Von dem Besizzer und dessen titulo possesesionis. Unrau durch die Geschworenen Grodt und Krzewiszinsky unterm Von den Schulden, real Verbindlichkeiten und Lasten April anno in der Ehrb.
Claus Frantzen seine Behausung in Beisein der Ehrb. Klaus Frantz Mittnachbaar alhie auf Gr. Lubin an einem Theil und dem Ehrb.
Es verkauft der Ehrb. Claus Frantz dem obbemeldeten Peter Goertzen seinen in Gr. Martin dieses sten Jahres fl und auf May wen wir schreiben werden fl und den Rest als fl auf S.
Lubin im Jahr und Tag wie oben. Dass vorstehende Abschrift mit dem Original gleichstimmig ist, attestirt in fidem Gross Lubin d.
April - gez. Ich Michael Dohrau habe die Kauf Summa richtig empfangen nehmlich fl wo von ich quittire Anno den 3. Vorstehende Abschrift stimmt mit dem producireten Original solches attestiret.
Juni durch den Grodt und Krzewiszinsky aufgenommenen Inventario cum taxa. Heute indessen giebt der izzige Besizzer selber folgende Schulden zur ingrossation an.
Siebrandt und ihrem nach der Mutter verstorbenen Bruder Thomas zugefallenen Erbtheile laut Erbrecess vom Diese fl 15 gr sind also zur ingrossation zu bemelden.
Unrau laut Recess vom Juni zugestellten Erbtheil von rth 30 gr 9 pf welche gleichfalls auf dieser Immobile zur ingrossation zu notieren.
May einzuziehen nachgegeben werde Peter Gertz - gez. Nachdem nun Gott durch den zeitl. Eleonora ist gebohren Anno den Jacob ist gebohren Anno den Thomas ist gebohren Anno den Als dann soll der Besitzer des Landes denen Kindern schuldig sein mit gangbahrem zu zahlen: Zu wahrer Uhrkund und stets fester Haltung alles obigen sind 3 Exemplar gleiches Lauts und Inhalts mit einer Handt verfertiget nach dem A.
Actum Gross Lubin Jahr und Tag wie oben gez. Peter Gertz als Vater und Erbgeber bekenne wie oben vermeldet gez. Peter Frantz als Kinder Vormund.
Liefchen rth 15 gr in Summa rth 15 gr Dieses hat der Vater oder Landbesitzer empfangen und hat es in seinem Gebrauch.
Vorstehende Abschrift stimmt mit dem pro und edirten Original solches attestirt Gross Lubin d. Juni in der Behausung des emphiteotischen Einsassen Peter Gertz.
Zur Exdivision der den Lubin verstorbenen Anna geb. Baltzerin und zuletzt verehel. Peter Frantzin in Gr. Lubin als welche 2 Erben die defuncta mit ihrem ersten Mann Claus Evert erzeuget.
Struwwelpeter and his fictional companions may incur severe consequences from their actions, but, with the exception of Konrad, they are not subdued or maimed.
When Lieschen sneaks some cake without permission the rod is used on her by her mother after she recovers from the indigestion caused by the "debauchery.
There are however exceptions to the absence of punishing authority figures. At least in the case of Nikolaus the character of the punishment is not primarily vindictive but seems in line with the dictum that children should learn from experience.
Dipped in ink, the boys will experience the ridicule of their surrounding and, most likely, that of the young readers as well. Whether they or the readers will be wiser and more tolerant as a consequence of their experience is left untold.
In this openness and ambiguity lies the continued fascination of Struwwelpeter. The vicarious experience of resistance and rebellion has without doubt endeared Struwwelpeter to many children, and it must have had some appeal to the adults as well.
After all, adults produce, edit, choose, buy, and read books for children, and their likes and approval play an important part in the equation, too.
Struwwelpeter as a frontispiece could not have been altogether out of place at a time when revolution was in the air.
Struwwelpeter soon became a widely known symbolic figure connoting rebellion and was even used in this context by Heinrich Hoffmann himself.
In the final analysis, the effect of Struwwelpeter is far from predictable or measurable, I believe, since the reception is contingent upon the personality, conditioning, and environment of each individual child.
The specific combination of qualities that Heinrich Hoffmann brought to his authorship: In a permissive society oversaturated with entertainment, where values have become relativized, behavioral codes are of lesser importance, where food is thrown away by the tons daily, dreadlocks are fashionable, and where soap and shampoo commercials have taken over the role of preachers of personal cleanliness, Struwwelpeter has become a cultural icon devoid of its original meaning, message, and connotations, ready to become part of the postmodern play of allusions.
Parodies of the original like F. The story number five about Frida who does not want to eat her chocolate doll is a case in point:. The translation here is rendered without rhyme.
In German the jingle calls forth immediate associations with the original Struwwelpeter verse: The image of the middle-aged Struwwelpeter from the same picture book seems symptomatic of the Struwwelpeter reception in the late twentieth century.
From revolting youngster Struwwelpeter has grown into a bald family father, his loss of hair connoting his loss of wildness, revolt, and power.
Ashton, Susanna and Amy Jean Petersen. Was niemand wissen kann. Seltsame Verse und sonderbare Geschichten. Keine Denunciation, sondern eine Warnung.
Kaspar Braun and Friedrich Schneider. Weinheim, Berlin and Basel: Verlag Julius Beltz, From the twenty-third edition of the celebrated German work of Dr.
Janet and Anne Grahame Johnstone. Reprint of original manuscript. Ein Brief an die Redaktion der Gartenlaube. Heinrich-Hoffmann-Museum der frankfurter werkgemeinschaft e.
Heinrich Hoffmann Museum, Detlef Hoffmann and Jens Thiele. Ecrits et images Zur Ikonographie der 2. Museum Villa Stuck, Radical students quickly recognized that the struggle against arbitrary authority as a manifestation of monopoly capitalism would be a long one and that the power of authority not only lay in the control of the government and economic process but was also deeply rooted in the control over child rearing and the education system.
Certainly it will call our traditional views into question. For the most part, they convey a distinct image of the world to children and foster the ideological hegemony of ruling-class interests.
Nor is there a conscious plan to produce books which nullify the potential for creativity and critical thinking in children. Here many factors must be taken into consideration.
The communicative function of the language and images should help the child improve his or her learning ability and creative potential. Restricted codes and closed reference systems should be avoided.
Each new book should try to incorporate the most recent pedagogical and psychological discoveries about education and society in order to increase the emancipatory value of the book.
In this respect the entire question of book production and the reception of a book must be reconsidered to include the participation of children in the entire process.
Ultimately, if this is done, the term classical will take on another, more authentic meaning. Most have unfortunately retained classical status because they are still useful in the indoctrination of children to the standards of a ruling class and also serve the market needs of the book industry.
Not only have all children in German-speaking countries from the late nineteenth century to the present been predominantly influenced by these two books, but children in America as well.
Struwwelpeter was written in by the physician Heinrich Hoffmann, who could not find an appropriate book for his three-year-old son and decided to write his own, based on stories he used to tell his young patients to prevent them from becoming disruptive and getting upset.
Up through there have been over six hundred different German editions and numerous translations, not to mention the hundreds of imitations and parodies.
There is hardly a German adult or child who does not know that Struwwelpeter is everything one is not supposed to become, the model of the disobedient child who never cuts his fingernails and lets his hair grow wild—in short, a barbarian.
The rhymed, illustrated stories which follow our introduction to him present a composite picture of Struwwelpeter: All the stories are written to frighten the young reader, and the illustrations are correspondingly gruesome and terrifying.
Adults generally find them comical. Only one of the stories involves a little girl. As always, the assumption is made that little girls are more docile and obedient than little boys, who are terrors.
The danger of Struwwelpeter and its imitations stems from the fact that it can be easily comprehended by children from age two on and has indeed stamped the consciousness of German children for generations.
Struwwelpeter glorifies obedience to arbitrary authority, and in each example the children are summarily punished by the adult world.
No clear-cut reasons are given for the behavior or the punishment; discipline is elevated above curiosity and creativity. It is not by chance, then, that this book has retained its bestseller, classical status to the present.
In addition, there have been several film versions. In , Shirley Temple played Heidi in a sentimental Hollywood production. There have also been records, an opera, and an American musical based on the book.
Like Struwwelpeter, Heidi is a conservative product of the nineteenth century which has been kept very much alive in the twentieth.
Spyri, a devout Christian, projects a vision of a harmonious world which can only be held together by Judeo-Christian ethics and God himself.
Briefly, her story concerns a five-year-old orphan, Heidi, who is sent to live on top of a Swiss mountain with her grandfather, a social outcast.
After three years, her aunt, who works in Frankfurt, comes to fetch her so that she can become a companion to a rich little girl who is crippled.
Both the aunt and the rest of the Swiss village think it will be better for Heidi, for they have a low opinion of the grandfather and feel that Heidi needs to be educated.
For the grandfather, who has come to love Heidi deeply, this is a devastating blow, and he becomes more of a misanthrope. In Frankfurt, Heidi turns a wealthy bourgeois household upside down with her natural ways, which are contrasted with the artificial and decadent ways of the city people.
Nevertheless, she endears herself to the grandmother, Klara the cripple, the businessman father, and their servants. Only the governess and teacher cannot grasp her "wild" ways.
Indeed, as Heidi begins to wane, God interferes in the person of the doctor, who advises the businessman to return Heidi to the grandfather.
When Heidi is sent back to the mountains, the grandfather is ecstatic and becomes convinced that it was an act of God which brought about the return of his granddaughter.
Although there are abridged versions for younger children, Heidi was essentially written for the child ten and over. Quite opposite to Struwwelpeter , it concerns the experiences of a little girl, who is made into some kind of an extraordinary angel, a nature child with holy innocence, incapable of doing evil, gentle, loving, and kind.
At first, she does not comprehend the world, but as she grows, everything is explained to her according to the accepted social and religious norms of the day.
Here it is important to see the pedagogical purpose of the narrative and its dependence on the traditional Bildungsroman.
Heidi learns that the world is static and directed by God. Although she is disturbed that her grandfather and relatives are poor and must struggle merely to subsist, the grandmother in Frankfurt brings her to believe that God wants it that way and that material poverty is insignificant when one considers the real meaning of richness: While the simple, pious community of the Swiss village is contrasted with the false, brutal life in the city, Spyri does nothing to explain the real contradictions between city and country.
The hard life in the Swiss mountains becomes idyllic. There the people are pure and closer to God. The world of Switzerland caters to the escapist tendencies of readers who might seek release from the perplexing, difficult conditions of urban life.
Heidi, too, is a figure of the infantile, regressive fantasy which desires a lost innocence that never was. Since natural equals Christian in this book, there is no way in which children can comprehend what really is a natural or socially conditioned drive.
In both instances, the classical stature of the books is closely linked to their commodity value. The three are Basis, Weismann, and Rowohlt.
Basis Verlag, like Oberbaum and Das rote Kinderbuch, 11 developed from a collective which worked in daycare and youth centers during the late s and has continued this work, largely in Berlin.
The members of Basis are socialists, who see their task as preparing the base for a new socialist society.
Their main emphasis is on the production of books for children between the ages of four and twelve, although they have also produced a comic book and photographic story for apprentices who work in factories.
The Basis books for children were developed at a time when the anti-authoritarian phase of the New Left was coming to an end in West Germany—that is, the phase when arbitrary authority was defied for the sake of defying authority.
Though there are some anti-authoritarian elements in Basis books, their main goal is to demonstrate how working collectively can lead to a greater sense of oneself and the world and to the resolution of problems confronting children in their everyday lives.
Six of the works written between and will give an example of the aims and production methods of the Basis Verlag: Then we called up our friends and asked them if they would like to dress up and play a knight, poet, king, or bear.
And when they all said yes, then we acted out the entire story, and Ute photographed us. Dieter and Reiner printed the pictures and the story, and in the end, the bookbinders made the book into a real book.
Both think up traditional stories: The two stories come together as the bear meets the knight in the woods. They decide to go play with the children in the local neighborhood set in the present instead of fishing and fighting.
The poets become angry that their heroes have abandoned their traditional roles and story-lines and go searching for them. They come across some knights who, sent by the king to fight against the peasants, have been soundly defeated.
The poets complain that this normally does not happen in stories, but the knights argue that something is wrong with the usual stories since the peasants had never harmed them—that is, until the king had sent them to destroy the peasants.
They all decide to turn against the king, and with the help of the bear, the loyal knight, and the children, they capture the king, stuff him, and set him up as a monument in a park as a warning to all monarchs.
The country then belongs to everyone and is renamed country of the knights, peasants, poets, bears, and children. Here the traditional manner of telling fairy tales which glorify feudalism is criticized in a novel way.
The subtle use of photographs and comics adds to the Brechtian estrangement effect, which prompts children to think critically and creatively throughout the story.
The main difficulty with the narrative is that the social message and aesthetic innovations are perhaps too complex for a child to understand alone.
This story uses only photographs and combines elements from well-known folktales to illustrate housing problems in the city.
Four young people all in their twenties decide to live together: Schlienz, who can smell extraordinarily well; Minzl, who can hear long distances; Gorch, who can run faster than cars; and Atta, who is tremendously strong.
They rent an apartment, and the landlord tries to cheat them. However, they are too smart for him, and ultimately they set up a collective household which runs smoothly until the landlord raises the rent arbitrarily.
The four decide to organize the tenants in the entire building to fight and protest the hike in rent, and they use their extraordinary talents to unite the tenants and take over the building.
However, since the people come from different classes a teacher, bank clerk, metal worker, insurance inspector, and railroad worker and have different interests, the landlord is able to play upon the divisiveness in the coalition and, with the help of the police, defeat the strike.
Schlienz, Minzl, Gorch, and Atta are arrested. Nevertheless, while in prison, they reconsider their strategy and make plans so that they can be successful the next time they try to organize the tenants.
The book closes with a series of newspaper articles about landlords cheating tenants. The photographs in this story combine humor with accurate depictions of housing conditions.
The remarkable talents of the heroes are not so fantastic that they might lead children to have unreal expectations of their own powers.
The fact that the four heroes two men and two women do not succeed shows to what extent the authors clearly understand the stage of the social struggle within the cities.
Here the emphasis is not so much on gaining a victory but on creating a sense of need for collective action.
When she goes on a quest to find out the answers, information about salaries, work conditions, rents, and social classes is conveyed to her and, of course, to the readers.
This information is incorporated into the story through questions, comics, photographs, and charts. After numerous adventures, Renate and two friends come across two young factory workers who spend time with them to clarify everything and who explain that the social contradictions can only be overcome by workers who learn to trust one another and cooperate to take over the means of production.
Only through this type of action will the social disparities that confront Renate during the day be eliminated. Krach auf Kohls Spielplatz is for three-year-olds.
Andrea is troubled by Theo Kohl, who controls the playground because his father is rich and owns the construction company which employs most of the parents living in the housing settlement and neighborhood.
Theo manages to bribe Joachim, the strongest boy, with candy to act as "law enforcer"—that is, until Andrea and the other children get together and unite to defeat Theo and Joachim and set up mutually beneficial rules of play.
Though the book is instructive in pointing out the link between a bully and the possession of money, the language and pictures of the story are so devoid of imagination that the message will have only a minimal effect upon young readers.
This is not the case with Krokodil , written for and by five-year-olds. When the article was read to children in a preschool class and then discussed, the children reacted positively to the manner in which the African children united to protect their friend from the crocodile at the risk of their own lives.
At one point the teacher introduced the idea of doing a picture book about this story together. The children were skeptical since they knew nothing about book production, but the teacher explained how books were put together and encouraged the children so that they realized it was possible to make their own book.
After the children drew pictures and helped compose a text, they selected which pictures were to appear as illustrations.
Yet, they are not happy because all the profits go to the robbers, who use their weapons to intimidate the villagers. Finally, the children, who are also forced to labor in a manner which they dislike, devise a plan to capture the robbers.
The remarkable feature of this story is that it explains the aspects of robbery stemming from capitalist production in a concrete, humorous manner without becoming heavily theoretical.
The clear descriptions and explicit language of the narrative enhance the emancipatory value of this story, which is geared toward enabling young readers to understand the work process as a form of liberation.
Generally speaking, Basis books are directly related to the actual class struggles in West Germany. The major figures are from the working class, and the contents of the stories are, broadly speaking, of utmost concern to the underprivileged in society and lead to developing class consciousness.
Some of the stories tend to be too didactic as if the significance of the message itself were enough to strike the imagination of children. Obviously, this is a failing which Basis of late has been attempting to rectify.
For the most part, the language of the books is vigorous and blunt; colloquialisms and curses are used because children are accustomed to hearing them in their surroundings—used to explain their surroundings.
The authors do not talk down to the children. They employ a great deal of irony in the depictions, and the techniques of photography, comics, and montage dialectically enhance the communicability of the theory.
At the same time, the books also transcend the category of "children" or "childish," for adults can learn and enjoy in producing and reading them.
The books of Weismann Verlag 15 also point in this direction. A socialist collective which is not as active as the Basis Verlag in day-care and youth centers, the Weismann group has published over ten books, mainly by teenagers.
The Weismann books are not as directly concerned with immediate German social problems. One book, Herr Bertolt Brecht sagt Mr.
Bertolt Brecht Says, , is a collection of anecdotes, stories, and poems by Brecht. Eltern Spielen, Kinder Lernen Parents Play, Children Learn, by Wolfram Frommlet, Hans Mayhofer, and Wolfgang Zacharias is a handbook mainly for adults about how to start community groups which want to create better play conditions for children.
In general, the Weismann Verlag is more concerned with explaining social issues to teenagers and explicating socialist theories.
The following three books are most typical of their general policy: Consequently, Poppie is neglected and flounders. She decides that the only way to survive in a capitalist society is by selling oneself.
So, she becomes a prostitute. At one point she meets a radical who takes a sincere interest in her and promises to explain to her what enlightenment means and why she is a victim of capitalism.
Rauter is even more theoretical in his book. His major thesis is that individuals are made in schools, that is, through education which consists of the home, movies, television, theater, radio, newspapers, books, and posters.
Using concrete examples, Rauter explains how the media and schools produce conformists and nonthinkers. With each point he makes, he draws closer to his conclusion that we all must turn the education process around so that we can control our lives and prevent further production of passive, perverse human beings.
Wallraff is a type of Ralph Nader , with the exception that Wallraff has dealt with exposing the sordid conditions in factories and business firms by working in them.
Over the past seven years often with the help of pseudonyms and disguises he has held jobs in different plants and firms throughout West Germany and has revealed the exploitative methods of capitalists.
His book is a report about his activities which begins with a description in diary form of how he was maltreated by the army as a conscientious objector and how he then worked at different factories, wrote for newspapers, and was subjected to harassment by big industry and the government.
All three of these Weismann books are noteworthy for the respect they pay teenagers. Words are not minced.
These books are written in a clear, intelligible language which makes the theory and connections drawn to the social realities comprehensible for young readers.
Sparse illustrations, generally photographic montages, are used effectively to reveal existing contradictions in society. All Weismann books lay great emphasis on authenticity and documentation.
Many are limited in their appeal to a young progressive intelligentsia because of their abstract quality, but their socialist perspective and edifying aspect provide a basis within the material itself for readers of all social classes to understand the theoretical arguments.
In this sense, the difficulty presented by the Weismann publications lies not so much in the books themselves as in the educational system which restricts the use of such books in the classroom.
Most notably, Rowohlt Verlag, one of the largest and best houses in West Germany, has started a series called Rotfuchs Red Fox under the general editorship of Uwe Wandrey.
The series began in April , and well over sixty inexpensive paperbacks with superb artwork and photography have been published since then.
Most of the authors are already well known in West Germany. The general policy of Rotfuchs is one of cultural pluralism.
That is, the series contains books which range in their critique of society from mildly reformist to socialist. The age groups addressed are anywhere from five to fourteen.
Some of the books are limited in their appeal to a distinct age group, whereas others cut across age and social class differences.
Here are brief summaries of seven books which will convey an impression of the spectrum of this series. With amusing, unusual illustrations of elephants competing against one another, Hopf brings out in her narrative how sports can be fun.
Here a young man invents a table cloth and a magic stick which are expropriated by a factory owner in order to intimidate the workers and hold them in his power.
In the end, they take charge of the factory and their own lives. Here, too, the illustrations are pertinent, subtle, and comical.
After he mistakenly paints XY on people whom he suspects to be criminal, the young boy is severely punished by his parents.
Consequently, he decides to run away, and he comes across a mysterious stranger in the woods who helps and comforts him. The stranger turns out to be the wanted thief, with whom the boy decides to live until both are captured by the police.
Here the illustrations are stark and photogenic. There is no preaching, but the boy learns that there is another side to criminality than that which he views on television.
He has a quarrel with her, and she disappears. Helmut goes looking for her and winds up by exploring the entire city, which becomes his playground.
After several hours of seeing different aspects of city life, Helmut returns home only to find that his sister had been hiding in the cellar.
Both promise not to upset their parents by telling what happened during the day. The story is filled with photos of Helmut in the city that depict social and work conditions.
Helmut is pictured neither as cute nor heroic, but rather curious and alert. He responds to an emergency situation with remarkable calm and understanding.
In this sense the journey is beneficial because Herbert and the young reader as well realizes that time cannot be allowed to control his life.
Here a young girl gives a candid account of her life and views of family, sex, society, the role of women, and her possibilities for a career.
The advantage of the left-liberal policy of the Rotfuchs series is also its disadvantage. The Rotfuchs books speak to many different audiences and propose various alternatives to the existing social system.
Some indicate revolution, some reform. Some see change coming about by developing the creative and cognitive faculties of children while others seek to raise class consciousness.
The mode of portrayal ranges from the parable, fable, and surreal to the realistic and documentary. The language is generally high German, although slang is used.
All classes of children are lumped together, and no overall didactic goal can be ascertained, except to say that the series wants to teach critical thinking.
This is its disadvantage since many of the books in the series contradict one another and are at odds in their fundamental educational goals.
Without a clear-cut policy, the books will be consumed indiscriminately by children who will learn to tolerate different views but not really learn how to think critically in a social context and historical manner.
The socialist books have been especially influential in several ways. They use plain, everyday language which corresponds to that most familiar to both children and adults.
It is intelligible and clear but not childish and simplistic, and it serves to enhance the learning ability of the readers, not to compensate for inadequate education.
Story-lines address themselves to actual problems in present-day Germany. Boys and girls are treated as equals, and traditional role-playing is brought into question.
The heroes and the heroines are the collective. Emphasis is placed on struggle and solidarity. The perspective of the story is a general socialist one.
The resolution of problems is not made easy, for there is no happy end. Photographs and comics are used in unique ways to convey a clear picture of social conditions and contradictions.
The art work is subtle and fosters original thinking and appreciation. Socialist theory helps clarify the social disparities encountered by children in concrete situations.
The production of the books is geared to the reception by children. An earnest attempt is made by the producers either to involve children in the production process or to write books which pertain to the interests of children and stimulate class consciousness and solidarity.
As Dieter Richter has noted, 19 the books serve to bring together adults and children and to promote a common critical and creative activity.
But will it survive? This dilemma can only be solved as more contact with educational institutions and the working classes is established. The reason for this, as Oskar Negt and Alexander Kluge have remarked, is that:.
It does not allow itself to be organized in small groups. When children attempt to organize for themselves and herein regulate their lives, it cannot be their intention to pay for their freedom of space by completely withdrawing from reality and withdrawing from the adult world, which is the prime link to the source of all objects together and to the children.
Therefore, the public sphere of children cannot be brought about without a material public sphere which connects the parents, and without public spheres of children at all levels and in all classes of society which are able to be brought into contact with one another….
Self-organization and self-regulation of children will be just as vehemently disputed by all kinds of authoritarian interests as is the self-organization of the proletariat.
Whoever thinks that the public sphere of children is a grotesque idea will have difficulty conceiving what the public sphere of the proletariat really is.
Negt and Kluge argue that the public sphere has historically become dominated and institutionalized mainly by the bourgeoisie, and there is no sector of public education, communication, assembly, production, or distribution which does not serve the interests of this ruling class.
For society to become truly free, democratic, and socialist, they assert that a proletarian public sphere must be created so that people will become aware of their own genuine material needs and desires and the ways to fulfill these needs and desires.
This means an intrusion into the bourgeois public sphere. Concomitantly there is a problem of co-optation, whereby the bourgeois public sphere appropriates the new forms developed in behalf of children and the proletariat.
To be more precise, most of the books produced by Basis and Weismann are handled by radical bookstores or are sold through the mail.
In this respect, its ultimate worth will depend on how we in the West not only in West Germany value the future we glimpse in the eyes of our children.
See my article, "Educating, Miseducating, and Re-educating Children: There has been such a prodigious output of noteworthy studies that it would take a small pamphlet to list them all.
Some of the more important ones are: Johannes Beck et al. For the most recent criticism by the New Left, see the special issues of Kursbuch , vol.
Dieter Richter and Jochen Vogt Reinbek, Klaus Doderer Weinheim, , pp. It is more than a simple parody in that it incorporates emancipatory features into a critique of authoritarian behavior.
Karl Ernst Maier Bad Heilbrunn, , pp. The title of the comic book is Lehrlingsfront 1 , and the photographic story, Liebe Mutter, mir geht es gut. Weismann has recently joined with Raith Verlag of Munich, a progressive firm which has concentrated on publishing books dealing with psychology and education.
Gmelin and Monika Sperr. The picture book has proved to be a fruitful field of study for inquiries into the narrative potential of the fixed image.
It has generated a rather sophisticated body of theory over the last 20 years or so, which leaves the conventional view of the picture book as a basically verbal artifact supported by pictures far behind.
Contemporary studies of the picture book approach its pictorial dimension as an independent semiotic system in its own right, which does not necessarily concur with the verbal component, rather than as a mere prop to the verbal story.
Both words and images make their own relatively autonomous contribution to the overall semantic, aesthetic and emotional effect of the picture book.
Therefore, it has often been observed that the picture book is closer to other mixed narrative forms such as drama or film than to verbal fiction.
Given the general consensus on the substantial weight of both pictorial and verbal narrative codes in the picture book, it is only logical that many studies attempt to give an overview of the different types of interaction between words and images in this surprisingly complex art form.
According to Perry Nodelman, words and pictures can never simply repeat or parallel each other, because of the inherent differences between verbal and visual modes of communication.
They can, however, visually demonstrate attitudes, while words are incapable of directly expressing emotion through shape and color.
Because visual and verbal modes of communication are subject to diverging sets of constraints, the images in a picture book can never simply illustrate the words, but will necessarily offer different types of information to the reader: Thus, Maria Nikolajeva and Carole Scott have come up with the categories of symmetrical, enhancing, complementary, counterpointing and contradictory interaction.
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