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The Japanese encephalitis virus JEV has an incubation period of 2 to 26 days. Severe rigors may mark the onset of this disease in humans. Fever, headache and malaise are other non-specific symptoms of this disease which may last for a period of between 1 and 6 days.
Mental retardation is usually developed. Mortality of this disease varies but is generally higher in children. Transplacental spread has been noted.
Lifelong neurological defects such as deafness, emotional lability and hemiparesis may occur in those who have had central nervous system involvement.
In known cases, some effects also include nausea, headache, fever, vomiting and sometimes swelling of the testicles. Increased microglial activation following Japanese Encephalitis infection has been found to influence the outcome of viral pathogenesis.
Microglia are the resident immune cell s of the central nervous system CNS and have a critical role in host defense against invading microorganisms.
Additionally, other soluble factors such as neurotoxins , excitatory neurotransmitters , prostaglandin , reactive oxygen , and nitrogen species are secreted by activated microglia.
In a murine model of JE, it was found that in the hippocampus and the striatum , the number of activated microglia was more than anywhere else in the brain closely followed by that in the thalamus.
In the cortex, the number of activated microglia was significantly less when compared with other regions of the mouse brain. An overall induction of differential expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from different brain regions during a progressive Japanese Encephalitis infection was also observed.
Although the net effect of the proinflammatory mediators is to kill infectious organisms and infected cells as well as to stimulate the production of molecules that amplify the mounting response to damage, it is also evident that in a nonregenerating organ such as the brain, a dysregulated innate immune response would be deleterious.
In JE the tight regulation of microglial activation appears to be disturbed, resulting in an autotoxic loop of microglial activation that possibly leads to bystander neuronal damage.
It is a disease caused by the mosquito -borne Japanese encephalitis virus JEV. JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae , part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 genetically and antigenically related viruses, some which are particularly severe in horses , and four known to infect humans including West Nile virus.
The positive sense single-stranded RNA genome is packaged in the capsid which is formed by the capsid protein. The outer envelope is formed by envelope protein and is the protective antigen.
It aids in entry of the virus into the inside of the cell. NS1 is produced as secretory form also. NS3 is a putative helicase , and NS5 is the viral polymerase.
It has been noted that Japanese encephalitis infects the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum ER   and rapidly accumulates substantial amounts of viral proteins.
Based on the envelope gene, there are five genotypes I—V. The Muar strain, isolated from a patient in Malaya in , is the prototype strain of genotype V.
Genotype IV appears to be the ancestral strain, and the virus appears to have evolved in the Indonesian—Malaysian region. The first clinical reports date from , but the virus appears to have evolved in the midth century.
Over sixty complete genomes of this virus had been sequenced by JE virus IgM antibodies are usually detectable 3 to 8 days after onset of illness and persist for 30 to 90 days, but longer persistence has been documented.
Therefore, positive IgM antibodies occasionally may reflect a past infection or vaccination. Serum collected within 10 days of illness onset may not have detectable IgM, and the test should be repeated on a convalescent sample.
For patients with JE virus IgM antibodies, confirmatory neutralizing antibody testing should be performed. In fatal cases, nucleic acid amplification, and virus culture of autopsy tissues can be useful.
Viral antigen can be shown in tissues by indirect fluorescent antibody staining. Infection with Japanese encephalitis confers lifelong immunity.
There are currently three vaccines available: A formalin -inactivated mouse-brain derived vaccine was first produced in Japan in the s and was validated for use in Taiwan in the s and in Thailand in the s.
The widespread use of vaccine and urbanization has led to control of the disease in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore. The high cost of this vaccine, which is grown in live mice, means that poorer countries have not been able to afford to give it as part of a routine immunization program.
The most common adverse effects are redness and pain at the injection site. Uncommonly, an urticarial reaction can develop about four days after injection.
Vaccines produced from mouse brain have a risk of autoimmune neurological complications of around 1 per million vaccinations. The neutralizing antibody persists in the circulation for at least two to three years, and perhaps longer.
In September the Indian firm Biological E. Limited has launched an inactivated cell culture derived vaccine based on SA strain which was developed in a technology transfer agreement with Intercell and is a thiomersal -free vaccine.
There is no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis and treatment is supportive,  with assistance given for feeding , breathing or seizure control as required.
Raised intracranial pressure may be managed with mannitol. A breakthrough in the field of Japanese encephalitis therapeutics is the identification of macrophage receptor involvement in the disease severity.
A recent report of an Indian group demonstrates the involvement of monocyte and macrophage receptor CLEC5A in severe inflammatory response in Japanese Encephalitis infection of the brain.
This transcriptomic study provides a hypothesis of neuroinflammation and a new lead in development of appropriate therapeutic against Japanese encephalitis.
Japanese encephalitis JE is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia , with up to 70, cases reported annually. Rare outbreaks in U.
Residents of rural areas in endemic locations are at highest risk; Japanese encephalitis does not usually occur in urban areas.
Countries which have had major epidemics in the past, but which have controlled the disease primarily by vaccination, include China , South Korea , Japan , Taiwan and Thailand.
Other countries that still have periodic epidemics include Vietnam , Cambodia , Myanmar , India , Nepal , and Malaysia. Japanese encephalitis has been reported in the Torres Strait Islands and two fatal cases were reported in mainland northern Australia in There were reported cases in Kachin State , Myanmar in In , she started her singing career in the blues band "Fifty Fingers".
She worked in the studio as a backing singer in Toulouse and performed with many singers, including Maeso, Art Mengo , Vladimir Max, Jean-Pierre Mader , Eduardo Sanguinetti, the latinoamerican philosopher and land-artist,  and Serge Guerao.
Every year the European Border Breakers Awards EBBA recognize the success of ten emerging artists or groups who reached audiences outside their own countries with their first internationally released album in the past year.
Zaz is an extraordinary voice, and she will be the revelation of the summer! Kerredine Soltani produced the album on the label "Play On" and wrote and composed the hit single " Je veux ".
She was invited to make several television appearances such as Taratata or Chabada and was featured in several programs on the radio.
In autumn Zaz topped the charts in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria. Despite the demand, it seems preferable to do her first tour in fifty small places which will render her credible.
Zaz is a popular, intuitive artist, who is familiar with music, who can sing, but doing a quality show is something else Zaz also won the European Border Breakers Award: Zaz created the project Zazimut to "develop and promote projects for a society more respectful of life in all its forms".
Added 50 positions to actual Ultratip position for reporting purposes in table. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Retrieved 28 May Retrieved 5 January Retrieved 4 January RBB online in German. Archived from the original on 30 March Retrieved 27 March Retrieved 2 January Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 7 August Retrieved 29 November Retrieved 8 October Retrieved 18 November Retrieved 18 December Archived from the original on 1 July Retrieved 24 May Archived from the original on 15 May